Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Scientists Coax Secrets From Living Soil Crusts

Biological soil crusts (BSCs), as the name might suggest, are rather unprepossessing entities, typically presenting themselves as dark, mottled patches on desert soils.

From a microbiological perspective, however, they are fascinating:  living, symbiotic communities of cyanobacteria, mosses, and algae that can survive – indeed, thrive — where most other things wither and die.

Is Warming to Blame for Tornado Damage?

At least 24 people died in the tornado that struck Moore, Oklahoma yesterday, and damage could hit the $2 billion mark.  It may be inaccurate – as well as hackneyed – to call the storm a “monster,” but it was certainly very big.  On the Enhanced Fujita scale of EF-1 to EF-5, the twister hit EF-4, with winds in excess of 190 mph.

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